In this lecture you will learn:
A good demonstration of alpha, beta and gamma radiation click HERE
| X-rays are NOT NUCLEAR radiation
as it doesnt come from the nucleus.
X rays were discovered boiling off of a high voltage wire (is same principle as tube type TV electrons, which are simply not as high voltage.)
The electrons (e-) were attracted to a positively (+) charged plate, and hit glass and caused a greenish glow. It was electron, but came from the inner electron orbits of an atom.
HOW ARE X-RAYS PRODUCED?
The anode (+) is a metal like tungsten. It is the "target". When the high energy e- hit the target, they slow down abruptly. The kinetic energy of their movement is converted into a photon of high energy, X-rays.
|Making radioactive materials or starting
a reaction involves adding particles to the NUCLEUS to unbalance
it. "SPLITTING ATOMS" is not like bowling where you roll something
fast enough to knock the pins all over, it is more like Bocce balls where
you slowly roll a ball into the center and knock out something.
Neutrons are used because not affected by repulsion of the protons. Fast neutrons bounce off of the nucleus (billiards), slow neutrons slide into the nucleus (like bocce ball).
Nearly any element can be made radioactive by adding particles 3Hydrogen for example AKA tritium. All elements except helium have a radioactive isotope.
Elements below 83 with balanced neutrons and protons are not naturally radioactive. But just adding or subtracting one neutron will make them radioactive. When there are more or less neutrons than protons, it is called an ISOTOPE of the element and is radioactive.
All elements 83 amu and higher are naturally radioactive (82 AMU is lead) The nucleii higher than lead is just too large for stability.
Above what atomic number are elements naturally radioactive?
How does chemical activity affect radioactivity?
How does hot and cold affect radioactivity?
Discuss everything you know about alpha, beta and gamma radiation.
What is difference between gamma and X-radiation?
How is particle and gamma radiation different?
Which radiation is affected by magnets? What are the charges of alpha, beta and gamma radiation?
Create a table comparing apha, beta and gamma radiation for the following characteristics
penetration, charge, particle composition
What is ionizing radiation?
What are X-RAYS, where do they come from and how are X-rays produced?
Why are neutrons used to split atoms and create isotopes?
ALL ELEMENTS EXCEPT ________ HAVE A RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE
When there are more or less neutrons than protons, it is called an ________of the element.
How do smoke detectors work?