WIKI                                                           ANATOMY

Bones have several purposes.

A. They provide the scaffold or structure for muscle attachment and movement.

B. They provide protection, like the skull around the brain, ribs around the heart and the vertebrae have a dual purpose, both structure and to protect the spinal chord

C. They are where the bone marrow is found, the tissue that produces blood cells.   The pelvis is the biggest store house of stem cells, and that is where marrow is taken from for bone marrow transplants.

D.  They are storage of minerals like calcium and phosphorus

We are born with > 300 bones, some fuse (like plates of the skull) and end up with 206 bones as an adult

be sure to know the purposes of bones for quiz

Identify the major bones above on YOURSELF.  
Have someone take a picture of your front and back.  Using a graphics program (OR, stickies), label the position of at least 10 bones on EACH your front and back. 


2.  Muscles
RIGHT CLICK, select "view image" for larger picture
Muscles only contract.  So to move your arm back and forth requires two opposing sets of muscles (SEE PART BELOW).  Muscles have 3 designations; origin, insertion and action
1. origin is on the bone that DOESNT move .. the scapula
2. insertion is on the bone that DOES move .. the radius
3. action ..  flexion of the lower arm, flexion of upper arm
The opposing muscles
1. origin on scapula and humerus
2. insertion on ulna
3. action is extension of the lower arm
Identify the major muscles on YOURSELF.  Using the same pictures from above, now label the position of 10 muscles on your back, 10 on your front. 

1. Concentric Contraction- muscle gets shortened by producing a force, like a biceps curl
2. Eccentric Action- muscle gets longer by producing a force, like slowly putting down a gallon of milk against gravity
3. Isometric Action- muscle produces a force but does not change length

-muscles attach at two bones in the body to produce motions.

Muscle activation

Procedures: Test the following concentric actions on your partner.  See where the muscle appears.

1. Biceps: Have partner flex the elbow with the palm up.  You should add resistance by pushing down on their forearm.  What happens?  What is a good exercise for the biceps?

2. Brachioradialis: Hold hand in thumbs up position.  Put elbow against side and bend elbow to 90 degrees.  Add resistance by pushing down on the forearm.  What happens?  This muscle "bow strings" which means it stands out more when being used.  Why would it do this?

3. Triceps: Do a table push up.  Watch the back of the arms.  What happens?  Do you see definite muscle definition?  What muscle does this oppose?

4. Anterior Deltoid: Pretend you are hugging something.  Look at the top of the shoulder to look at definition in the front of the shoulder.  What happens?  There are three parts to this muscle.  Why does only the front part stand out?

5. Middle Deltoid: Raise arm to the side.  Resist this action by having partner push back down.  What happens?  What is the action of this muscle?

6. Upper Trapezius: Shrug shoulders up.  Have partner push down on shoulders.  What happens?  This muscle works on both the scapula and the shoulder head.  What do you think it does?

Take 2 pictures of yourself performing 2 muscle movements. Using a graphics program label the insertion, the origin and using an arrow show the action of the muscle.  Google for information on what insertion, origin and action are. 

In your lab wikibook write down YOUR traits and likely 
GENOTYPE for each of the following: 

Attached ear lobe. (ee) 
Unattached ear lobe.

Blue eyes. (bb) 
Non blue eyes.

Widows peak. 
Non widows peak. (ww)

Tongue roller. 
Non tongue roller. (rr)

Bent pinkie. 
Straight pinkie. (pp)

Hair on mid joints. 
No hair on mid joints. (hh)

Red hair. (nn) 
Any other color of hair.

Curly hair (CC) 
Wavy hair (Cc) 
straight hair (cc)

Cleft chin. (cc) 
Non cleft chin.

Almond eyes. 
Round eyes. (aa)
Eyes straight. 
Eyes slanted. (ss)

Bushy eyebrows. 
Fine eyebrows. (bb)

Connected eyebrow. (cc) 
Non-connected eyebrow.

No freckles. (ff)

No dimples. (dd)

Hitchhiker's thumb. (hh) 
Non hitchhiker's thumb.

Cross right thumb over left(tt) 
Cross left thumb over right.

Right handed. 
Left handed. (hh)